Quality should be the first thing you think about whenever you set out to make any food product. Ensuring ice cream sanitation during ice cream manufacturing will influence the quality of the end product.
Adequate sanitation programs are necessary to reduce ingredient contamination.
As such, you will need to ensure proper sanitation for ice cream during production by using only the highest quality of ingredients and the cleanest equipment.
To achieve satisfactory levels of ice cream sanitation at the plant, implement the following:
Ensure that all the workers are clean and healthy. They should be trained in quality control and processing
Ensure that only the highest quality ingredients are used
Adopt proper processing techniques such as quick-freezing method to avoid ice cream defects
Use appropriate equipment to process the ice cream
Maintain high standards of plant hygiene and sanitation
Adopt proper distribution channels that will maintain high quality of the product
The ice cream sanitation parameters that will help in maintaining high quality of the product include:
Chemical and physical composition of the ice cream ingredients
Here, check the viscosity of the mix (using viscometer) and the stabilizing capacity of the stabilizers used in the mix
Conduct Total Viable Count (TVC) and Total Plate Count (TPC) of the product. Also carry out coliform (especially fecal coliform) test on the product to ensure that it is of very high hygienic standards.
According to the provisions of the Kenya Bureau of Standards, an ice cream should meet the following standards:
The overrun must not exceed 100%
There should be ZERO pathogens
Total plate count should have less than 105 Colony forming units (CFU) per ml
Non-fecal coliforms should be less than 102 CFU/ml
Fecal coliforms should be ZERO
Sensory evaluation of the ice cream
Use an ice cream score chart to conduct the sensory analysis. A typical score card would look like this
|Body and texture||30||Assign score|
|Colour, appearance & packaging||10||Assign score|
|Melting quality||5||Assign score|
|Total||100||Total score (sum up)|
Using the chart, award points for each category based on how you perceive the quality to be.
This scorecard emphasizes the degree of perfection n ice cream quality and gives the manufacturer room for improvements.
The analysis for the score awarded to the ice cream sample would be analyzed according the category table below:
|Total score (%)||Rating|
A proper quality ice cream should provide the following nutrients:
Butterfat – 12g/100g
MSNF – 11g/100g
Stabilizer – 0.3g/100g
Proteins – 41g/100g
Carbohydrates – 20.7g/100g
Minerals (calcium 122, Phosphorus 105, Potassium 90, Sodium 60, Iron 0.1) – 0.9g/100g
Vitamin A – 492 international Units (IU)
Thiamine (vit B1) – 0.04mg
Riboflavin (vit B2) – 0.23mg
Niacin (vit B3) – 0.1mg
Vitamin C – 1.0mg
Ice cream sanitation activities at the plant
Thorough cleaning and sanitation of the ice cream plant equipment is necessary to assure the quality of the products. It is futile to sterilize dirty equipment because it only increases the chances of recontamination.
Conducting a thorough cleaning will not only make the equipment clean but also provide an opportunity to inspect the facility for wear and tear.
The equipment can be scrapped using an abrasive material or a detergent under high pressure can be used. Soap use is discouraged because it is very difficult to completely rinse from the system. Furthermore, soap leaves a thin film on the surface of the equipment.Don't use soap to clean processing equipment; it is hard to rinse. Leaves a contaminating film. Click To Tweet
On the other hand, a strong alkali may corrode the equipment. Use only correct proportions and correct concentrations.
Some of the cleaning detergents include:
Sodium carbonate (softening agent)
Sulphonated alcohols are very instrumental as softening agents in the cleaning detergents.
Factors affecting the cleaning agents include:
Temperature of the cleaning solution
Concentration of the cleaning agent
Contact time of the cleaning solution
Pressure exerted by the cleaning solution
The steps for cleaning equipment in an ice cream plant
- Begin by (pre)rinsing the equipment with warm water (26-43°C). If the milk has dried on the equipment, let it soak for some time.
- Scrub the surface using brushes with the detergent solution. Brush both inside and outside of the equipment.
- Rinse again with water at 37-43°C to remove all the cleaning agent from the equipment
- Sanitize/sterilize the equipment using certain chemical compounds such as:
Quaternary ammonium compounds.
Dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, which is effective at concentrations of at least 200 ppm (or 200 mg/kg). These compounds are preferred because of their wetting ability, non-toxicity, and non-corrosive nature. They should be used at pH 5 and a temperature of 23°C.
Sodium hypochlorite, which is very corrosive. The corrosive nature of hypochlorites necessitate their usage at concentrations of between 50-200 ppm. Hypochlorite compounds act very fast.
These are very slow in action and used at concentrations of between 50-200 ppm.
After sterilization, steam all the equipment at 115°C under pressure for five minutes. You may also use hot water and/or air at between 82-100°C for ten minutes to sterilize the system.
- Dry the equipment. This step may be omitted if the equipment is to be used immediately.
The CIP cleaning procedure to ensure ice cream sanitation
- Begin by rinsing the system.
- Circulate the cleaning solution. It should be slightly acidic (between 0.15 – 0.6%) and pressurized for 25 – 30 minutes
- Rinse with water at 68°C for 5 – 7 minutes
- Flush with alkali at 65 – 71°C for 20 – 30 minutes
- Rinse with cold water then sterilize/sanitize.